[158] Coimbatore is often referred to as the "Manchester of South India" due to its cotton production and textile industries. [166] Major global automobile companies including BMW, Ford, Robert Bosch, Renault-Nissan, Caterpillar, Hyundai, Mitsubishi Motors, and Michelin as well as Indian automobile majors like Mahindra & Mahindra, Ashok Leyland, Eicher Motors, Isuzu Motors, TI cycles, Hindustan Motors, TVS Motors, Irizar-TVS, Royal Enfield, MRF, Apollo Tyres, TAFE Tractors, Daimler AG Company invested ₹4 billion for establishing a new plant in Tamil Nadu. [119] [36] The Nayaks of Madurai and Nayaks of Thanjavur were the most prominent Nayaks of the 17th century. It is believed that the Dravidians of Tamil country were once a part of the early Indus Valley settlers and moved south after the advent of the Aryans around 1500 BC. Priyanka. The M. A. Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai is an international cricket ground with a capacity of 50,000 and houses the Tamil Nadu Cricket Association. Pongal, also called Tamizhar Thirunaal (festival of Tamils) or Makara Sankranti elsewhere in India, a four-day harvest festival is one of the most widely celebrated festivals throughout Tamil Nadu. Hundreds of leather and tannery facilities are located around Vellore and its nearby towns. According to the 2011 Census, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanised state in India (49 per cent), accounting for 9.6 per cent of the urban population while only comprising 6 per cent of India's total population. The announcement made by Rajinkanth, to enter the fray of electoral politics in Tamil Nadu has thrown the equilibrium haywire, in the State, as most believed that he would not venture to do so – after all he had evaded the move so long and most parties were literally given up hope and the DMK […] History of Muslim Invasion in Tamilnadu. [168][citation needed]. Cricket contests between local clubs, franchises and teams are popular in the state. Tamil Nadu has a total railway track length of 5,952 km (3,698 mi) and there are 532 railway stations in the state. [134][135] Cable used to be the preferred mode of reaching homes controlled by government run operator Arasu Cable. [107] The earliest epigraphic records found on rock edicts and hero stones date from around the 3rd century BCE.[108][109]. – ancient Tamil Nadu history with Graphics - Popular Top "Tamil Nadu history" Free Download! I want all books for upsc. [208] Srinivasaraghavan Venkataraghavan,[209] Krishnamachari Srikkanth,[210] Laxman Sivaramakrishnan, Sadagoppan Ramesh, Laxmipathy Balaji,[211] Murali Vijay,[212] Ravichandran Ashwin[213] , Vijay Shankar, Murali Karthik, Washington Sundar, Subramaniam Badrinath, Abhinav Mukund and Dinesh Karthik are some prominent cricketers from Tamil Nadu. However, due to the differences between its two leaders E. V. Ramasamy and C. N. Annadurai, the party was split. Tamil Nadu is one of the leading states in the textile sector and it houses the country's largest spinning industry accounting for almost 80 per cent of the total installed capacity in India. The capital is Chennai, in the northeastern portion of the state. Tamil Nadu is one of the most literate states in India. Although Tamil Nadu accounts for the highest number of road accidents in India, it also leads in having reduced the number of fatalities in accident-prone areas with deployment of personnel and a sustained awareness campaign. According to official data, the textile industry in Tamil Nadu accounts for 17 per cent of the total invested capital in all the industries. Some of the notable educational institutes present in Tamil Nadu are Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Anna University, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, College of Engineering, Guindy, Madras Institute of Technology, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore Institute of Technology, Government College of Technology, Coimbatore, Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, Tamil Nadu National Law University, Government Law College, Coimbatore, Christian Medical College, Vellore, Madras Medical College, Stanley Medical College, Madras Veterinary College, University of Madras, Vellore Institute of Technology, Kumaraguru College of Technology, Coimbatore Medical College and Institute of Road and Transport Technology. Link is invalid not working. By the early 18th century, the political scene in Tamil Nadu saw a major change-over and was under the control of many minor rulers aspiring to be independent. [194], Tamil Nadu has the third largest installed power generation capacity in the country. Tamil Nadu has the country's third-longest coastline at about 906.9 km (563.5 mi). [113] Notable example of Tamil poetry include the Tirukkural written by Tiruvalluvar. Indian Angiosperm diversity comprises 17,672 species with Tamil Nadu leading all states in the country, with 5640 species accounting for 1/3 of the total flora of India. One of the basic limitations for improvement in education in the state is the rate of absence of teachers in public schools, which at 21.4 per cent is significant. Tamil Nadu has 37 universities, 552 engineering colleges[96] 449 polytechnic colleges[97] and 566 arts and science colleges, 34,335 elementary schools, 5,167 high schools, 5,054 higher secondary schools and 5,000 hospitals. The state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites.[8][9][10]. Vast numbers of bryophytes, lichen, fungi, algae, and bacteria are among the wild plant diversity of Tamil Nadu. [104] The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is roughly dated from ca. The Vijayanagara empire eventually conquered the entire Tamil country by c. 1370 and ruled for almost two centuries until its defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by a confederacy of Deccan sultanates. Pre-primary classes form age group 3 to 4. Two types of universities in Tamil Nadu are, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Department of Higher Education (Tamil Nadu), All India Council for Technical Education, Indian Certificate of Secondary Education, Department of Employment and Training (Commissionerate of Employment and Training), List of institutions of higher education in Tamil Nadu, Tamil Nadu Directorate Of Technical Education (TNDTE), List of Tamil Nadu Government's Educational Institutions, Indian Institute of Management Tiruchirappalli, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli, Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development, Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University, Tamil Nadu Physical Education and Sports University, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, The Tamil Nadu Dr. Ambedkar Law University, The Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Music and Fine Arts University, The Tamil Nadu Dr. M.G.R. Tamil Nadu is the tenth largest Indian state by area and the sixth largest by population. Later, South Indian Liberal Federation was adopted as its official name. Districts are further divided into 226 Taluks administrated by Tahsildars comprising 1127 Revenue blocks administrated by Revenue Inspector (RI). The state also accounts for 50 per cent of leather exports[164][165] from India, valued at around US$3.3 billion of the total US$6.5 billion from India. Muhammad Ali Khan Wallajah surrendered much of his territory to the East India Company which firmly established the British in the northern parts. The Pudukkottai kingdom has the distinction of being the only princely state in Tamil Nadu, and only became part of the Indian union in 1948 after independence.[48]. It can be broadly divided into Ancient, Medieval and Modern Tamil Nadu. Bhukya Ravinder. The Tamil area in India is a centre of traditional Hinduism.Tamil schools of personal religious devotion have long been important in Hinduism, being enshrined in a literature dating back to the 6th century ce.Buddhism and Jainism were widespread among the Tamil, and these religions’ literatures predate the early bhakti literature in the Tamil area. This includes 1,559 species of medicinal plants, 533 endemic species, 260 species of wild relatives of cultivated plants and 230 red-listed species. Tamil Nadu is one of the most literate states in India.The state's literacy rate is 80.33% in 2011, which is above the national average. Modern history of tamilnadu Colonial Settlements The Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the British came as traders from Europe. Ramachandran Central Railway Station is the gateway for trains towards the north whereas Chennai Egmore serves as the gateway for the south. Tamil Nadu has historically been an agricultural state and is a leading producer of agricultural products in India. Edit. [153] Tamil Nadu Agricultural University with its seven colleges and thirty-two research stations spread over the entire state contributes to evolving new crop varieties and technologies and disseminating through various extension agencies. The government of Tamil Nadu created a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) for implementing the Chennai Metro Rail Project. Common plant species include the state tree: palmyra palm, eucalyptus, rubber, cinchona, clumping bamboos (Bambusa arundinacea), common teak, Anogeissus latifolia, Indian laurel, grewia, and blooming trees like Indian labumusum, ardisia, and solanaceae. [152], Dr. M.S. History of Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu Tamil Nadu, Puducherry on edge as very severe cyclone Nivar closes in Tamil Nadu Actor-politician Kushboo escapes unhurt in car accident Tamil Nadu … The history of Tamil Nadu is very old and goes back to thousands of years back. We have Bifurcated the History of Tamil Nadu into four sections for the systematic study for TNPSC Exam by our students. [86] However, it has a high level of poverty, especially in rural areas. The Pteridophytes diversity of India includes 1,022 species of which Tamil Nadu has about 184 species. Tamil Nadu politics. Tamil Nadu has a wide range of biomes extending east from the South Western Ghats montane rain forests in the Western Ghats through the South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests and Deccan thorn scrub forests to tropical dry broadleaf forests and then to the beaches, estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves, seagrasses and coral reefs of the Bay of Bengal. The famine led to the migration of people as bonded labourers for the British to various countries which eventually formed the present Tamil diaspora. [128] The first silent film in Tamil Keechaka Vadham, was made in 1916. In Tamil Nadu, the television industry is influenced by politics and majority of the channels are owned by politicians or people with political links. Tamil Nadu is known for its rich tradition of literature, art, music and dance which continue to flourish today. The total cultivated area in the state was 5.60 million hectares in 2009–10. [219], The tourism industry of Tamil Nadu is the largest in India, with an annual growth rate of 16 per cent. [79][80], At the 2011 India census, Tamil Nadu had a population of 72,147,030. The western, southern, and the northwestern parts are hilly and rich in vegetation. Chennai hosted India's first-ever International Beach Volleyball Championship in 2008. These are the earliest specimen of Dravidian temples under the Cholas. The Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve is in the southwest of the state bordering Kerala in the Western Ghats. The YMCA College of Physical Education at Nandanam in Chennai was established in 1920 and was the first college for physical education in Asia. His son Aditya I built several temples around the Kanchi and Kumbakonam regions. During the administration of Governor George Harris (1854–1859) measures were taken to improve education and increase the representation of Indians in the administration. Prior to Indian independence, Tamil Nadu was under British colonial rule as part of the Madras Presidency. It has now been converted into a joint venture of the governments of India and of Tamil Nadu with equal equity holding. [201] With a generating capacity of 648 MWp at a single location, it is the world's sixth largest (as of 2018) solar park. Chennai, the capital of the state is the fourth largest urban agglomeration in India and is also one of the major metropolitan cities of India. At its peak, the empire spanned almost 3,600,000 km2 (1,400,000 sq mi). They reconstructed some of the well-known temples in Tamil Nadu such as the Meenakshi Temple. [125] The term Kollywood is a blend of Kodambakkam and Hollywood. Veeran Sundaralingam (1700–1800) was the General of Kattabomman Nayakan's palayam, who died in the process of blowing up a British ammunition dump in 1799 which killed more than 150 British soldiers to save Kattapomman Palace. Express trains connect the state capital Chennai with Mumbai, Delhi, and Kolkata. It is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the union territory of Puducherry. Dheeran Chinnamalai (1756–1805), Polygar chieftain of Kongu and ally of Tipu Sultan who fought the British in the Second Polygar War. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The state government owns Tamil Nadu Newsprint and Papers,[169] in Karur. [17] About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, and most of these are in the Tamil language. As per Tamil Nadu Hindu Endowments Board, there are 38615 Temples. The Cholas went on to becoming a great power and built some of the most imposing religious structures in their lifetime and they also renovated temples and buildings of the Pallavas, acknowledging their common socio-religious and cultural heritage. Major national and global IT companies such as Atos Syntel, Infosys, Wipro, HCL Technologies, Tata Consultancy Services, Verizon, Hewlett-Packard Enterprise, Amazon.com, Capgemini, CGI, PayPal, IBM, NTT DATA, Accenture, Ramco Systems, Robert Bosch GmbH, DXC Technology, Cognizant, Tech Mahindra, Virtusa, LTI, Mphasis, Mindtree, Zoho, and many others have offices in Tamil Nadu. Puratchi Thalaivar Dr. M.G. Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of E-Governance initiatives in India. Namakkal is also one of the major centres of egg production in India. Based on URP – Consumption for the period 2004–2005, the percentage of the state's population below the poverty line was 27.5 per cent. It also regulates the establishment of technical institutions including commerce institutions such as Typewriting, Shorthand and Accountancy. The central and the south-central regions are arid plains and receive less rainfall than the other regions. [76][77] Chennai is also the sixth-most populous city in India according to the 2011 Indian census. They had extensive trade links with the southeast Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors, as well as contacts, even formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire. While it has an … Around 1609, the Dutch established a settlement in Pulicat,[38] while the Danes had their establishment in Tharangambadi also known as Tranquebar. Tamil Nadu's coastline bore the brunt of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami when it hit India, which caused 7,793 direct deaths in the state. [139] Idlis, dosas, and sambar are quite common throughout the state. Tamil Nadu is a land most known for its monumental ancient Hindu temples and classical form of dance Bharata Natyam. Tamil Nadu covers an area of 130,058 km2 (50,216 sq mi), and is the tenth-largest state in India. The term length of the government is five years. Headquartered at Chennai, the Southern Railway network extends over a large area of India's southern peninsula, covering the states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, a small portion of Karnataka and a small portion of Andhra Pradesh. Such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ [142] The per capita income in 2007–2008 for the state was ₹72,993 ranking third among states with a population over 10 million and has steadily been above the national average.[143]. The main party in Tamil Nadu at that time was the Indian National Congress (INC). [41] The office of mayoralty of Madras was established in 1688. C. N. Annadurai left the party Dravida Kazhagam to form the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). Tamil Nadu Select cardholders in Tamil Nadu to get 5 kg of ‘chana’ free as COVID-19 relief Tamil Nadu ‘Registration of sale agreement no bar to sell property to third party’ This was due to the fact that electric carbons were used for motion picture projectors. [42] British reduced the French dominions in India to Puducherry. It is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, and Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean on the south. Aadi Perukku is celebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month Aadi, which celebrates the rising of the water level in the river Kaveri. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, and Andhra Pradesh. The Vellore mutiny on 10 July 1806 was the first instance of a large-scale mutiny by Indian sepoys against the British East India Company, predating the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century. [95] Much later, the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century. Tamil Nadu, state of India, located in the extreme south of the country. The first generator was commissioned in July 1979. When the sultanate was incorporated into the Mughal Empire in 1688, the northern part of current-day Tamil Nadu was administrated by the Nawab of the Carnatic, who had his seat in Arcot from 1715 onward. Tamil Nadu is one of the most literate states in India. Tourism in Tamil Nadu is promoted by Tamil Nadu Tourism Development Corporation (TTDC), a government of Tamil Nadu undertaking. Puratchi Thalaivar Dr. M.G. Pre History : Tamil Nadu's history dates back to pre-historic times. [170], Electronics manufacturing is a growing industry in Tamil Nadu, with many international companies like Nokia, Flex, Motorola, Sony-Ericsson, Foxconn, Samsung, Cisco, Moser Baer, Lenovo, Dell, Sanmina-SCI, Bosch, Texas Instruments having chosen Chennai as their South Asian manufacturing hub. Tamil Nadu (Tamil: [ˈtamiɻ ˈnaːɽɯ] (listen)) is one of the 28 states of India. The scores from the class 12 (combined with the class 11)board examinations are used by universities to determine eligibility and as a cut-off for admissions into their programmes. This festival is also called Kumbamela of South.[120][121]. Tamil Nadu is one of the states where law and order has been maintained largely successfully. [82][81], The state has 51,837,507 literates, making the literacy rate 80.33 per cent. The seat of power has always remained with one or the other Dravidian party. Major railway junctions (four and above lines) in the state are Chennai, Coimbatore, Katpadi, Madurai, Salem, Erode, Dindigul, Karur, Nagercoil, Tiruchirapalli, and Tirunelveli. [35] The Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil Nadu has four international airports, namely Chennai International Airport, Coimbatore International Airport, Tiruchirapalli International Airport and Madurai International Airport. Though this finding remains contested, like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter's southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007. [112] The available literature from this period was categorised and compiled in the 10th century into two categories based roughly on chronology.
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