Filters are designed and mapped on FPGA. 6. In order t, Fig. (3Ã3) window size is presented, which is based on Capacitive implementation. 0000010107 00000 n
decimate lowpass filters the input to guard against aliasing and downsamples the result. The Performance of the Decimation Filter The performance of the arbitrary rate alternation process depends on the frequency response ( ) j jMÏ C f e M e where an imagined matched filter M ' ()z is designed for a certain over-sampling factor with respect to the symbol 5. The CIC filter has the following of decimation can be done at the ouput of this compensation lter. APPLICATION OF FILTER SHARPENING TO CASCADED INTEGRATOR-COMB DECIMATION FILTERS PDF - A new architecture for the implementation of high-order decimation filters is described. The chip die area occupies only 4.1 *2.4mm^{2}and dissipates 90mW. The magnitude and phase response of the original filter are unaltered after the transformation. Fig. In particular, 25% of power reduction was achieved for supply voltage of 1.2 V while using DPL model compared with conventional CMOS structure. TABLE II AREA ( m2) FOR DIFFERENT DECIMATION FILTER STRUCTURES Oversampling ratio IIR-FIR Non-recursive Polyphase 64 6648 12951 19080 128 7635 16555 24807 256 8591 20638 31077 IIR-FIR structure has minimum area for a given oversampling ratio and the increase in the area The digital gates using DPL complementary metalâoxideâsemiconductor (CMOS) model were designed and used for the implementation of adder and multipliers required for FIR filter. Rate reduction by an integer factor M can be explained as a two-step process, with an equivalent implementation that is more efficient:. The decimation factor for each FIR filter is two. It consists of Cascode Integrated Comb (CIC) filters, using Finite Impulse Response (FIR) filters and Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filters structure. I need to select a bandwidth of about 10 KHz so the only way to do this is implementing a multirate filter. 0000000676 00000 n
This corresponds to savings in complexity of 25%. It is supposed that the decimation factor can be presented as the product of two factors. • Comb filters are suitable for reducing the sampling rate to four times the Nyquist rate. (a) The input and output samples of the proposed decimation filter for R = 3.3. Decimation reduces the original sample rate of a sequence to a lower rate. memories, achieving high energy efficiency and throughput in a small chip area. The presented decimation structure of Figure 1 is thus still applicable, without any need for additional filtering. Several optimization techniques were used to implement power efficient design. (a) Illustration of the decimation process and (b) frequency response interpretation. Fig. The reconstructed audio is … Keywords—Decimation filter, MATL B® toolbox, Muli- filters. Consider oversampling the signal at, say, 64 times the Nyquist rate but 2.1.4 Is there a restriction on decimation factors I can use? information about CIC filters, refer to Eugene B. Hogenauer, “An economical class of digital filters for decimation and interpolation,” IEEE Transactions on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, pp. ADS62Pxx â dual 12/14bit up to 125Msps 1. The problem is the filtering process because the sampling rate of the system is 500 MHZ(clock). The transformation is computationally efficient since current output can be directly computed from single Mth old output and M inputs processed using polyphase decomposition. The original length A new technique is proposed to transform an IIR filter into a computationally efficient decimation filter. Filter â¦ FIGURE 3: Decimation filter (a) low pass decimation filter (b) CIC filter where N is the number of stage, M is the differential delay and R is the decimation factor The CIC filter consist of N stages of integrator and comb filter which are connected by a down sampler stage as shown in figure 1 in z domain. A. A fully pipelined programmable real-time (3Ã3) image filter based on capacitive threshold-logic gate... A hybrid power-efficient FIR filter architecture using DPL model, Conference: Microelectronics, 2004. by Ian Beavers Download PDF. Due to the nature of the decimation and interpolation processes, polyphase filter structures can be developed to efficiently implement the decimation and interpolation filters (using fewer number of multiplications and additions). and data processing is highly parallelized in order to take advantage of �(�ŕd���,%Y⚤��kx|fv�̙��gz��7�HЇ�K�8=f�f����8o��"��E��s.p����o�Dņ���[�&�����59˙�\:*ُ�r3{\�d��~�i�x���r��lg�%�hB�r:[�~�ͷ�~*�#��7zo"���T`�|��a����d=[>R���OO�ٴ��T`y��#ܸŵ. Design issues such as polyphase components, internal Partly contradictory requirements like high dynamic range and low bandwidth for GSM and vice versa for UMTS need decimation factors of M=144 (GSM) and M=8 (UMTS). In this paper, we present a new decoder architecture for first-order sigma-delta analog-to-digital converters. Figure 1. Comparison of area for different decimation architec-tures. "��ȝE�qx�s9��1:9)��b�kFn��b�&V��r|ֳn1�?�C\{��4�C&�'�o�%��Q�r��d�ɹ\D�1�� MV��ą�=T$-���s�֑�3��$q�RxX�OD�,���:N�pO��
��X5�˙�p��T,w��KG]�%r�� �7�e+q�����b�!F?c�ODK���R�T7����x �� I9�������v*�P�����yBut�W�w:����zR'5mj܆K��P����5���'�hj=��|V���_�n�� � throughput capability, the programmable image filter will be able to Fractional decimation filter using oversampled data Download PDF Info Publication number US6433726B1. Problably i misundersand something about decimation but i'm not sure about the design of the antialiasing filter before the decimation. 4000 0 obj<>stream
The filter architecture is fully pipelined, To start consider changing the rate of a signal by a factor of 2. <<75D07F4B582746409496182F3A05A441>]>>
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The proposed technique is an alternative to the standard CIC (Cascaded Integrator-Comb) approach with a decimation factor of m-th power of two and m-th power of three. It should be pointed out that the filter structure of Fig. Analog Tipsâ Decimation for ADCs. Typical multi-stage decimation filter: 1.) Polyphase decomposition is an efficient solution to this resource problem in the direct implementation. Because of the flexibility of the architecture, it can also be extended to implement other three-step search algorithms. Potential aliasing is prevented by lowpass-filtering the samples before decimation. �&.l�R"x��BY�X�|H�q�A���1(*�3��� �Tɳ5Tr�2�oX�;�TR����T�8,�D �D@�Dy��(6d�? Note that halfband filters are Nyquist filters for the case M=2. Each digital filter structure is simulated using Matlab and its complete architecture is captured using Simulink. The decimation filter structure is based on cascaded-integrated Comb (CIC) filter. 1.1 Decimation and Interpolation 1.2 Digital Filter Banks Digital Filter Banks A digital lter bank is a collection of digital lters, with a common input or a common output. Reduce high-frequency signal components with a digital lowpass filter. Each polyphase filter runs at th e reduced sample rate of F s / M where M is the decimation (i nterpolation) factor and F s is the sampling rate of the orig-inal filter. Due to the nature of the decimation and interpolation processes, polyphase filter structures can be developed to efficiently implement the decimation and interpolation filters (using fewer number of multiplications and additions). Lizhe Tan, Jean Jiang, in Digital Signal Processing (Third Edition), 2019. A second decimation filter using CIC for large rate change and cascaded FIR filters, for small rate changes, to improve the frequency response. 3982 0 obj <>
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Downsampling by an integer factor. The earlier problem can now be implemented using 2 decimation stages. Lizhe Tan, Jean Jiang, in Digital Signal Processing (Third Edition), 2019. This corresponds to savings in complexity of 25%. DSP _ The simulation was now performed using, spectra were unchanged, and they are shown in Figure 7. The maximum passband ripple is 0.1 dB and the minimum stopband attenuation is 40 dB. In that way the expanded model filter can be moved to the lower rate. The filter coefficients, , are found via the following equation: 0000006450 00000 n
The decimation filter is made up of several stages. FIGURE 3: Decimation filter (a) low pass decimation filter (b) CIC filter where N is the number of stage, M is the differential delay and R is the decimation factor The CIC filter consist of N stages of integrator and comb filter which are connected by a down sampler stage as shown in figure 1 in z domain. micron double-polysilicon CMOS technology to evaluate the performance of "�脘 P�&-*�i�t�)� !bE4j�m��
����h�Ala��Qu:��E�X_m�~蹻�G��ޝ�w������ x Q�����r� �a(^Wr[ O��Z%(A��A+y�ɌL�ј�\�'F�n�j����mÖ�M�h��"��l�mz���ɣ4��zz�tP18�1S�x3�Si�ȭ��ԋ��iT�Sr>�H�H�C?�'h��.��8����O韨T�l�]f��k���k! The integrator section of CIC filters consists of Nideal digital integrator stages operating at the high sampling rate,f,. This has been achieved by porting the netlist of the Simulink system description into the Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL). Figure 2 will allow a maximum clock frequency of about 100 MHz. It is sometimes called a boxcar filter, especially when followed by decimation. 155-162, April 1981. The efficiency gain of this mode l is M/2. The proposed structure is even more hardware efficient. 0000002776 00000 n
It combines the cascaded integrator-comb (CIC) multirate filter 3.2 Compensation lter example For instance, we have taken the following example of oversampled acquisition system: Input signal sampled at 6.4 KHz CIC decimation ratio: R= 16 (400 Hz at the output of the CIC lter) Compensation lter decimation ratio: R 2 = 2 (hence a nal sampling have been discussed, processor and an FPGA addressing circuit, the architecture can successfully implement the ITSS algorithm on silicon with the minimum number of gates. two parts: a decimation filter converting 1-bit PDM data to PCM data, followed by two individually configurable IIR filters (low pass and high pass). DSP DSP –b. Decimation Filters have a better understanding how decimation filters operate, we created an example. Based on a VLSI tree, Many emerging and future applications require significant levels of complex digital signal processing and operate within limited power budgets. This class of filters requires neither multipliers nor storage elements to store filter coefficients and therefore uses less resources than a corresponding FIR filter. word length, built-in self-test scheme and layout design considerations 3.3 Pass band droop correction: The transfer function of the proposed compensation filter is given by 10 Where a and b are real valued constants and M is a decimation filter. A higher order IIR transfer function is decomposed into parallel first-order sections and each section is transformed for sample rate reduction. The snippet below explains the code flow: /* Below is The CIC decimation filter functionality which gets called after every This is the basic point of view we have taken in this paper. 2. procedure for linear phase FIR filters design [3]. It is based on parallel processing techniques and inherent pipelining and offers advantages in high speed operation, low power consumption and low complexity for VLSI implementation. For modulators with (1-z-1)L noise shaping comb filters are very efficient. 0000002438 00000 n
Structure of FIR Fig. Downsampling by an integer factor. decompositions are avoided in the case of decimation ratio and filter VHDL implementation of the Sinc filter. We design the decimation filter with the decimation factor M=8. For the stage 2 filter, which precede a deci- â¦ ����Ϟ�~�����.��ڕ�+h�������/�5;6֥d�?��v���b0����'�e�oHk�����_-$��d��(�o��$��'I.n3T��c�ݗ�a�A��I��ű���xJU&I���qS����N_��fy���&�fE�$��k�\�i�,%+�:���(Fێ� Digital filters described in VHDL were first verified in, VHDL simulator Active HDL. Power-delay product of 25% reduction was also achieved in the DPL model. H i(z): analysis lters x k[n]: subband signals F i(z): synthesis lters SIMO vs. MISO Typical frequency response for analysis lters: Can be marginally overlapping non-overlapping Nyquist filters are attractive for decimation and interpolation due to the fact that a 1/M fraction of the number of coefficients is zero. Halfband filters are an efficient way of doing this. The method is based on the IFIR (interpolated finite impulse response) structure and the sharpening techniques. Filters. 5. 11.2 Polyphase Filter Structure and Implementation. This paper presents one method for a multiplierless FIR (finite impulse response) decimation filter design. Filter x[n] Decimation Anti-Aliasing Decimation Anti-Aliasing Decimation y[n] Multistage Sample Rate Conversion Problem 2 Q. 1 shows the basic structure of the CIC decimation filter. 3.2 Compensation lter example For instance, we have taken the following example of oversampled acquisition system: Input signal sampled at 6.4 KHz CIC decimation ratio: R= 16 (400 Hz at the output of the CIC lter) Compensation lter decimation ratio: R 2 = 2 (hence a nal sampling At the first instance, the Simulink-to-VHDL converter has been designed to use structural VHDL code to describe system interconnections, allowing simple behavioral descriptions for basic blocks. VLSI Design of a High Performance Decimation Filter Used for Digital Filtering, Low power digital design in Integrated Power Meter IC, Design and implementation of CIC based decimation filter for improved frequency response, A Dynamic Decoder for First-Order Sigma Delta Modulators Dedicated to Lab-on-Chip Applications, Design of a 16-bit stereo audio EA A/D converter, Low Power Non-Recursive Decimation Filters, Transformation to implement computationally efficient IIR decimation filters, A 2.5V, 5mW UMTS and GSM dual mode decimation filter for sigma delta ADC, ASIC Implementation of Low Power Decimation Filter for UMTS and GSM Sigma-Delta A/D Converter, A partial-polyphase VLSI architecture for very high speed CIC decimation filters, VLSI IMPLEMENTATION OF A HIGH-SPEED DELTA-SIGMA ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER, Advanced technologies for measurement, control, and communication on the electric grid, VLSI-based parallel architecture for block-matching motion estimation in low bit-rate video coding, AsAP: A fine-grained many-core platform for DSP applications. Find out how many lter coe cients are necessary for a 2 stage decimation process. A test bench was, be estimated expressed in logical NAND gates units. A comparison of several architectures of this circuit based on different architectures of most popular filter is presented. Rate reduction by an integer factor M can be explained as a two-step process, with an equivalent implementation that is more efficient:. The structure of FIR filter from Figure 5 is implemented in an FPGA using VHDL. The decimation filters work two fold, they decimate the sampling rate by a factor of OSR [over sampling rate] in doing so they remove the outband quantization noise resulting in an increase in resolution. ADS1281 – Integrated Filter • Three cascaded filter stage – Variable decimation, 5th order sinc – Fixed decimation FIR LPF, with selectable phase – Programmable High Pass Filter • … The proposed decimation filter consists of parallel CIC (cascaded integrator-comb) filters followed by a linear interpolation filter. DFT filter bank. Offset Correction 2. 1. Digital Signal Processing – p.6/25. Digital filters are realized using Alcatel CMOS 0.35 technology and its library elements. 2. (2nd-order/3-tap filter in this case, implementing a moving average) A moving average filter is a very simple FIR filter. An alternative that saves 70% to 80% power consumption to the standard CIC approach is discussed here with a decimation factor of m-th power of two and m-th power of three. Figure 6. The decimation filter is designed using the distributed arithmetic multiplier in VHDL. We present the results of a comparison of different decimation architectures for high resolution sigma delta analogue to digital conversion in terms of passband, transition band performance, simulated signal to noise ratio, and computational cost. CIC decimation filter: Hogenauer [3] introduced the CIC filter structure for economical design of decimation and interpolation filters. A decimation filter set to a lower ratio will not filter as much out of band noise but may enable lower power consumption. All content in this area was uploaded by Miljana MiliÄ on Nov 10, 2014, Miljana Sokolovic, Borisav Jovanovic, and Milunka Damnjanovic, sampled signals at the highest frequencies are preferred due, to lower sampling rate, high speed decimation digital filt, signal passes through the second order modulator. Gain Correction 3. In Section 111 we dis- The core chip size of the filter block without bonding pads is 0.058 mm2 by using the AMS 0.35 Âµm CMOS technology. Thus, the filter design using DPL model can be used in developing digital signal processing systems for portable multimedia devices. In the current Sinc stage a fourth order Sinc filters, Fig. trailer
the filter would require only 35 multiply and add combinations. Internal structure of the FIR filter. Decimation involves throwing away samples, so you can only decimate by integer factors; you cannot decimate by fractional factors. Figure 1 illustrates a polyphase decimation filter at an integer rate. – Ideal decimation filter dc gain is 1112000=120.9dB – To allow for offsets, etc., we’ll use a slightly smaller gain of 220=120.4dB • An FIR filter’s dc gain equals the sum of its coefficients. Yes. In this technique, the recursive transfer function is transformed and noble identity is invoked to get sample rate reduction. The digital filters in delta-sigma ADCs serve another function – decimation. ; Decimate the filtered signal by M; that is, keep only every M th sample. H i(z): analysis lters x k[n]: subband signals F i(z): synthesis lters SIMO vs. MISO Typical frequency response for analysis lters: Can be marginally overlapping non-overlapping Based on The signal can be decimated more than once, using a gradual change in sampling frequency. This paper presents a design of decimation filter used for digital filtering. Halfband FIR filters are implemented in dsp.FIRHalfbandInterpolator and dsp.FIRHalfbandDecimator. In Section III, a VLSI, requirements are highly relaxed, which gives, Fig. The data coming from the microphone is sent to the decimation process, which consists of two parts: a decimation filter converting 1-bit PDM data to PCM data, followed by two individually configurable IIR filters (low pass and high pass). 2.1. 0000004270 00000 n
More research is done to find the break-even point of silicon area for non-recursive and recursive architectures. 0000005109 00000 n
The simulation results show a four-fold improvement over conventional decoding approaches and a gain of 1.69 dB for an 80-bit sequence and 4.01 dB for an 8-bit sequence regarding the decoding cycles. US6433726B1 US09/887,454 US88745401A US6433726B1 US 6433726 B1 US6433726 B1 US 6433726B1 US 88745401 A US88745401 A US 88745401A US 6433726 B1 US6433726 B1 US 6433726B1 Authority US 2. In. set of integers that is finite precision coefficients. The decimation filter was implemented in a Xilinx Spartan-3 XC3S200-4FT256 FPGA as an intermediate step in effort to design a high resolution A/D converter. PDF | Decimation filters' architecture for an integrated power-meter is presented in this paper. ; Decimate the filtered signal by M; that is, keep only every M th sample. Decimation filters that provide sufficient attenuation of the frequency bands that will be folded down to baseband will efficiently also reject the critical part of this mirrored frequency component. Moreover, dramatically rising VLSI fabrication and design costs make programmable and reconfigurable solutions increasingly attractive. 0000003560 00000 n
The decimation filter is designed using the distributed arithmetic multiplier in VHDL. filter is used as an element with a very high selectivity. Page 4 Resampling Filter Basics AN 623: Using the DSP Builder Advanced Blockset to Implement Resampling Filters August 2010 Altera Corporation The power is proportional to the number of taps and the rate at which they operate. All rights reserved. A multi-rate filter architecture, which allows best hardware re-use for both mobile standards, is selected. Reduce high-frequency signal components with a digital lowpass filter. conventional 1.2 (b) The output samples of the two parallel CIC filter branches x 0 (m) and x 1 (m). The over sampled output of a sigma delta modulator is decimated to Nyquist sampling rate by Decimation filters. A Multi-Stage Decimation Filter To reduce the number of stages, the decimation filters are typically implemented in several stages. The interpolation filter has many zeros in its input signal, as illustrated by the direct interpolation filter structure on the left in Figure 2. operation, low power consumption and low complexity for VLSI sampling rate and still achieve the same performance as Hogenauer's CIC CROCHIERE AND RABINER: FIR DIGITAL FILTER IMPLEMENTATIONS 445 IW(e1 r 0 fr/M (b) Fig. â¢Maximum Decimation Frequency â¢Polyphase decomposition â¢Downsampled Polyphase Filter â¢Polyphase Upsampler â¢Complete Filter â¢Upsampler Implementation â¢Downsampler Implementation â¢Summary DSP and Digital Filters (2016-9045) Polyphase Filters: 12 â 2 / 10 Filter Speciï¬cation: Sample Rate: 20 kHz Passband edge: 100 Hz (Ï1 = 0.03) chip block that consists of both current Sinc filters. This approach consumes only 2.94 mW of power at a supply voltage of 3V. The chip is fabricated in 0.35 mum CMOS and consumes 4.72 mW in GSM and 5.54 mW in UMTS mode, both at V_{dd}=2.5 V. A partial-polyphase architecture for CIC (Cascaded Since the ADC is to be integrated into the power management component of the mobile terminal utilizing a 0.35 mum CMOS technology, special attention has been given to silicon area and power consumption of the component, while maintaining a standard design flow for the implementation. filter designed for applications with a lot of power-line interference. successfully, since the requirements are met. More research is done to find the break-even point between power consumption and silicon area for non-recursive and recursive architectures. 1. Sometimes, a sampled function is resampled at a lower rate by keeping only every M th sample and discarding the others, commonly called "decimation". These ADCs provide a wide frequency spectrum of visibility. decimation interpolation Resampling by rational fractions Multirate identities Polyphase representations Maximally decimated ﬁlter banks aliasing ... Nyquist Rate Conversion Anti-aliasing Filter. Assume a first-order delta-sigma modulator is used to generate … 5. The toolbox helps the user or design engineer to perform a quick design and analysis of decimation filter for multiple standards without doing extensive calculation of the underlying methods. The comparison includes: supply voltage, power consumption, area and technology. POWER ( W) FOR DIFFERENT DECIMATION FILTER STRUCTURES Oversampling ratio IIR-FIR Non-recursive Polyphase 64 120.3 103.2 83.4 128 136.7 110.4 84.6 256 152.51 113.7 85.6 From the comparison shown in Fig. THE DECIMATION FILTER V�/����May3�V,e� �ra�Re�k��{�QF����a��"^���zG?��}�����}�݄o�*�!I0;��~�� �H��,��z��þ���ۑ�7 �Q�k��s����� �N7�w����Ƙ^���q�~�V��x��3����8�(�s;�Qpr��� �~�bb�'�5�W��99Ð= ��0Wc���a����! 6, Polyphase structure has the minimum power consumption fol- I. 3. Model of proposed decimation filter. Together, architecture is provided in Section II. The techniques mainly rely on clock and data gating. xref
Sometimes, a sampled function is resampled at a lower rate by keeping only every M th sample and discarding the others, commonly called "decimation". Techniques found in [CR83] work very well in practice, but large rate changes require very narrow band lters. A Multi-Stage Decimation Filter To reduce the number of stages, the decimation filters are typically implemented in several stages. If a system design has flexibility in both the PDM clock frequency and decimation ratio, then a system designer can trade off those two settings against each other to optimize for either power or audio performance. DSP DSP. In that way the expanded model filter can be moved to the lower rate. After the conversion, it produces raw data that For the stage 1 filter, which precedes a decimation of 20, the ten stopbands are defined as SB n n (1 1250 100 where 1,2,3, ,10)=± =n (5) where the tenth stop band is stopped at one half the sampling rate. DSP DSP. The decimation filter was implemented in a Xilinx Spartan-3 XC3S200-4FT256 FPGA as an intermediate step in effort to design a high resolution A/D converter. Potential aliasing is prevented by lowpass-filtering the samples before decimation. By decimating in stages, the total number of taps in the filters is reduced and subsequent filters operate at lower sampling rates, further reducing the power consumption, Signal Processing Circuits for Mixed-Signal Integrated Systems in Submicron CMOS Technology, R. Rossi, "Signal Processing Circuits for Mixed-Signal Integrated Systems in Submicron CMOS Technology", Ph.D. in Electronics in Computer Science, University of Pavia, October 2001, In this paper, we proposed a flexible VLSI-based parallel processing architecture for an improved three-step search (ITSS) motion estimation algorithm that is superior to the existing three-step search (TSS) algorithm in all cases and also to the recently proposed new three-step search (NTSS) algorithm if used for low bit-rate video coding, as with the H.261 standard. The decimation filter will then reduce the input single to the required sample rate. On the other hand, the ADS127L01 has a wide-bandwidth flat-passband digital filter designed for higher-frequency applications. The first stage can be bypassed in order to use only the linear-phase FIR filter or several chips can be cascaded to obtain higher decimation ratios or longer FIR filters. Optimization is achieved by an iterative algorithm that reduces the number of iterations using previously decoded values. With the rapid development of computers and communications, more and more chips are required to have small size, low-power and high performance. The band of the Nyquist filter is typically set to be equal to the decimation factor, this centers the cutoff frequency at (1/M)*Fs/2. This leads to the concept of changing the sampling rates downward (decimation) to a lower sampling rate then filtering the filters with the new proposed architecture can operate at much lower Structure of FIR Fig. 2. }�_I���9.n��؇��q�4҄Q�U�c�_���aeßE��9S��N���MX�3�L����,����d\��{���W���<9}}͘K���m~�y%��l^�N�ܸ�����>��d�>.�+3M�>?�V��y����+l ��7�B�5Y)�ְ��I�T*��%i��8�*�&���uE�̠�*}�ڗ�*�� �,M����zmh��$��v����Ey�K�͒���ZА��YV�~�#Y���{�i�_h�
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