MATERIALS AND METHODS Collection and maintenance of plant material Young (up to five dichotomies) and old (up to eight dichotomies) specimens of C. fragile were collected from intertidal rock pools at Bembridge, Isle of Wight in November 1979. In the closely related Codium fragile subsp. Blue markers: specimen records Yellow marker: type locality, if present Red markers: endpoints of range from literature View map from the Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria. fragile (hereafter referred to as C. fragile) has wide environmental tolerances including temperature and salinity and is found in estuaries to marine waters (NIMPIS 2002). The density, cover and size (length, branching and weight) of annual erect thalli of Codium was enhanced in sheltered conditions, resulting in the monopolization of landward low‐shore habitats of breakwaters. observed that filamentous thalli of several Codium species grew over a broad range of environmental conditions. Some species are The cylindrical branches are dichotomously branched and arise from a juvenile phase having both prostrate and erect branches. tomentosoides tolerates large variations in salinity and temperature, enabling it to colonise a wide range of environments. Patterns of range expansion, niche shift and predator acquisition in "Codium fragile" spp. tomentosoides in the Gulf of Maine, both male and female gametes are produced in the same sex organ. Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Plants were collected in the Gulf of St. Lawrence in estuaries dominated by Zostera marina. Fronds are generally annual, dying back in the Winter and arising from the perennial basal portion in … Codium fragile The genus Codium displays an extremely high taxo-nomic diversity ( 100 species) among marine algae as well as a wide range of morphological forms (e.g. Codium fragile is a large, dark green macroalga with one to several, thick upright branches arising from a broad, spongy basal disc attached to the substrata. tomentosoides (van Goor) Silva were monitored at 3 locations in Rhode Island. Species Codium geppiorum O. C. Schmidt, 1923. In July 2007, 65 blocks were placed at 60-m intervals within a regular 720 × 240 m 2 grid (Fig. Species Codium geppiorum O. C. Schmidt, 1923. Habitat 16. Depth range based on 30 specimens in 1 taxon. A rhizomatous growth form of Codium fragile is described for the first time. californicum ranges from Alaska south to Baja California, Mexico. Habitat description Begin and Scheibling (2003) state that, "C. fragile ssp. Codium fragile ssp. The cpDNAs of the over 500 land plants that have been examined are unicircular and all but three fall into a size range of 120 We have employed a combination of plastid microsatellite markers and DNA sequence data from three regions of the plastid genome to trace the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. These invasive populations displayed a high level of geographical structuring of haplotypes, with one haplotype localized Hariot subsp. It has a large (>1-2 ft.) dichotomous thallus. Habitat & Range This species is found in the lower intertidal to subtidal, on rocky open coastlines. Species Codium intricatum Okamura, 1902. The species fouls shellfish beds and causes a myriad of impacts on shellfish communities. C. fragile is an erect species with Chavanich S., Harris L.G., Je J-G & Kang R-S (2006): Distribution pattern of the green alga Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot, 1889 in its native range, Korea, Aquatic invasions, Volume 1, Issue 3: 99-108 [as Codium fragile] One interesting finding was the lack of Though it may look rugged, the rocky shore — home to dead man's fingers — is fragile. Species Codium hubbsii Dawson, 1950. Codium fragile fragile grows in high densities and can dominate canopy species in infralittoral rocky reef communities. Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides were obtained with temperatures ranging from 18 to 24 °C and a long-day … Though the species C. fragile is found in many regions worldwide, the subspecies of North America's west coast, C. fragile ssp. Codium fragile ssp. Growing from a holdfast on rocks or molluscs, the buoyant thallus can lift and carry molluscs away in heavy seas; hence, C. fragile’s common name, “Oyster thief.”Codium fragile may also smother molluscs or urchins. Key words: Codium chloroplast DNA Physical - Gene map Introduction Most of the chloroplast DNAs (cpDNAs) that have been characterized to date are those of land plants. Codium fragile More. fragile), female and male gametangia occur on separate plants. tomentosoides is an alga that has been introduced around the globe through shellfish aquaculture, recreational boating, and transport on ship hulls. The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species. tomentosoides. Rocky shore creatures are at risk from coastal development and from pollution (including waste oil and agricultural runoff). Codium fragile, known commonly as green sea fingers, dead man's fingers, felty fingers, forked felt-alga, stag seaweed, sponge seaweed, green sponge, green fleece, and oyster thief, is a species of seaweed in the family Codiaceae. Introduction Codium fragile was first seen in the United States in 1957 on Montauk Point, Long Island Sound, New York. prostrate crusts, globose species, and tall, branching forms), all composed of interwoven coenocytic fila-ments (Silva 1992). 1).The grid was positioned to include eelgrass beds varying in their degree of invasion, ranging from areas where Codium grew attached to eelgrass rhizomes in more or less defined patches to non-invaded eelgrass beds, where only occasional drifting fragments of Codium were observed (Fig. Environmental ranges Depth range (m): 0 - 4.9 Temperature range (°C): 15.195 - 16.004 tomentosoides Click here to go back to Ecology tab. and Codium fragile (Sur.) Chavanich S., Harris L.G., Je J-G & Kang R-S (2006): Distribution pattern of the green alga Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot, 1889 in its native range, Korea, Aquatic invasions, Volume 1, Issue 3: 99-108 Environmental ranges Depth range (m): 0 - 4.9 ... Barcode data: Codium fragile. Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot, 1889. Higher growth rates of C. fragile ssp. Species Codium hubbsii Dawson, 1950. Depth range based on 44 specimens in 3 taxa. Female gametes are twice the diameter of male gametes and outnumber them 6:1. Seasonal patterns of growth, reproduction, and productivity of Codium fragile spp. The alga was maintained in aerated sea water at approximately Codium fragile is an invasive green seaweed that arrived in Long Island Sound in the late 1950s. Codium fragile in its native range suggests that it has the capability of taking advantage of disturbed habitats, which may help to explain why it has been such a successful invader in other regions of the world. Codium, genus of about 50 species of marine green algae (family Codiaceae) usually found in deep pools along rocky coasts. Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples. tomentosoides. Codium fragile is a conspicuous green alga with thick, spongy, and finger-like fronds, giving rise to its common name ‘Dead Man’s Fingers’. Essentially filamentous, the multinucleate branches are often woven together to form a velvety pseudothallus that can exceed 30 cm (11.8 inches) in length. Yang et al. Codium fragile ssp. This species also causes a nuisance to humans when it accumulates on beaches and rots producing a foul odor. Species Codium latum Suringar, 1867. In our subspecies (Codium fragile subsp. Codium fragile: Morphological and molecular variation present in native and introduced subspecies in Auckland ResearchSpace/Manakin Repository Origin/ Native Range Is native to Japan. Beyond New Zealand, three species are widespread (C. adhaerens, C. fragile, and C. dichotomum), and one restricted in range (C. cuneatum). Occurs in: coastland, estuarine habitats, marine habitats. 2). Species similar to Codium fragile ssp. Codium fragile. Species Codium latum Suringar, 1867. And some tide pools are in danger of being "loved to death" by visitors. californicum. Proceedings of the National Conference on Bioinvastions, Ju Species Codium intricatum Okamura, 1902. The nutritional composition of the edible seaweeds Codium fragile, Gracilaria chilensis and Macrocystis pyrifera was determined, including amino acid and fatty acid contents along with tocol and carotenoid contents. Humans have played a part of spreading this species because they were transporting shellfish to different parts of the country. It is native to Asia and has been introduced around the globe, including North America, South America, Greenland, Europe, Africa, Australia and New Zealand. In both species the ability to reduce acetylene is invariably associated with the presence of a heterocystous blue-green alga, Calothrix sp., epiphytic or embedded in the Codium thallus. Overview: Codium fragile is a conspicuous green alga with thick, spongy, and finger-like fronds, giving rise to its common name ‘Dead Man’s Fingers’. Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot, 1889. tomentosoides has established viable populations on artificial structures along the shores investigated. It is native to Asia and has been introduced around the globe, including North America, South America, Greenland, Europe, Africa, Australia and New Zealand. UC specimens and range limits for Codium fragile subsp. The coenocytic green alga Codium fragile (Suringar) Hariot subsp. Extremely low levels of genetic variation were detected, with only four haplotypes present in the species’ native range in Japan and only two of these found in introduced populations. The geographic distribution of Codium within New Zealand is correlated with L. B. Moore's (1949) algal provinces. Spread of Species: Is spread by reproduction of fragments. fragile, which is commonly called oyster thief or Sputnik weed, has impacted many Northwest (NW) Atlantic habitats, including shellfish communities and kelp beds, causing their loss or diminution (Harris and Mathieson 2000).Introduced populations of Codium are widespread in the Northeast (NE) and NW Atlantic, as … Algal and animal epiphytes which have been found on the different species are listed. "Tomentosoides" and "Membranipora membranacea" in the Gulf of Maine. Natural Environment: Inhabits intertidal areas/tidepools and seen attached to coral rubble and broken shell material where it forms a mass of dark green spongy to the touch branches that are repeatedly forked. Maximal growth occurred during the summer and was more significantly correlated with temperature than any other factor measured in this study. Identification: Codium fragile, or "Dead Man's Fingers" is a seaweed named for its dark green color and soft, felt-like texture.It has earned the common name "Dead Man's Fingers" or "Green Sea Fingers" for its swollen, finger-shaped branches that float in the water, or … Range: Indo-West Pacific Ocean: Maldives east to Papua New Guinea, north to Taiwan, south to Hawaii, Australia, and New Zealand. tomentosoides (Van Goor) Silva collected from New Zealand habitats. Notes: Northern records: Rockwell Island, Sitka Harbor, Alaska, UBC-A43990. Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.
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